What is Typhoid?
Typhoid fever is a systemic infection caused by Salmonella Typhi, or S.paratyphi, usually through ingestion of contaminated food or water.
According to WHO, most recent estimates (published in 2014), approximately 21 million cases and 222 000 typhoid-related deaths occur annually worldwide. A similar but often less severe disease, paratyphoid fever, is caused by Salmonella Paratyphi A, B or C.
The acute illness is characterized by Prolonged fever,
Loss of appetite, and
Constipation or sometimes diarrhoea.
When to call your doctor
If you notice any of these symptoms, consult your doctor for proper management.
Symptoms are often non-specific and clinically non-distinguishable from other febrile illnesses.
Typhoid fever can be prevented and can also be treated.
Vaccines: Two typhoid vaccines are currently recommended for use by WHO which are:
1. An injectable polysaccharide vaccine based on the purified Vi antigen (known as Vi-PS vaccine) for persons aged two years and above;
2. Live attenuated oral Ty21a vaccine in capsule formulation for those over five years of age.
WHO recommends the use of the Vi-PS and Ty21a vaccines to control endemic disease and for outbreak control.
* Proper hand, food hygiene is of high importance.
The main drugs for typhoid are antibiotics. Examples are;
Ceftriaxone (Rocephin). This injectable antibiotic is an alternative for people who may not be candidates for ciprofloxacin, such as children. And others.
Other management includes;
Drinking fluids. This helps prevent the dehydration that results from a prolonged fever and diarrhea. If you’re severely dehydrated, you may need to receive fluids through a vein (intravenously).
Surgery. If your intestines become perforated, you’ll need surgery to repair the hole.
If left untreated or poorly managed, it may cause any of the following.
• Intestinal perforation
• Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis)
• Inflammation of the lining of the heart and valves (endocarditis)
• Inflammation of the pancreas (pancreatitis)
• Kidney or bladder infections
• Infection and inflammation of the membranes and fluid surrounding your brain and spinal cord (meningitis)
• Psychiatric problems, such as delirium, hallucinations and paranoid psychosis.
Facts you should know
Here are some key points about typhoid.
• If untreated, typhoid kills around 25 percent of infected individuals
• Some people are capable of carrying the bacteria without developing typhoid symptoms
• Typhoid fevers regularly reach 104 degrees Fahrenheit
• The vast majority of typhoid cases in America are contracted overseas
• The only treatment for typhoid is