HEALTH ZONE

Know More. Stay Healthy. Stay Fit

Do you love Motivation, Inspiration, Quotes, Success, Poems, and Inspiring Stories? Visit MULTILOADED EMPIRE now!

Monkeypox Virus || Definition, Symptoms, Risk factors, Prevention & Treatment



What is Monkeypox infection?

Monkeypox is a rare viral zoonosis (a virus transmitted to humans from animals) with symptoms in humans similar to those seen in the past in smallpox patients, although less severe. However, monkeypox still occurs sporadically in some parts of Africa.
Monkeypox is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae.


How is it transmitted to humans?
The virus can enter through a cut in your skin, or through mucus membranes (eyes, nose, or mouth). You can also breathe it in. Any of the following can increase your risk for monkeypox:
  • A bite or scratch from an infected rodent, squirrel, or prairie dog
  • Direct contact with skin sores, blood, or body fluids of an infected person or animal
  • Direct contact with bedding or other items used by an infected person or animal
  • Breathing in air contaminated with the germs after an infected person coughed or sneezed

What are the risk factors?
Monkeypox is a relatively uncommon disease. Risk factors include animal bites and scratches from infected animals (mainly African rodents or monkeys) or from other rodents (like prairie dogs) that have had contact with African animals infected with the virus. People should avoid eating any meat from such animals is advised. 


What are the signs and symptoms?
In humans, the symptoms of monkeypox are similar to but milder than the symptoms of smallpox. Monkeypox begins with fever, headache, muscle aches, and exhaustion. The main difference between symptoms of smallpox and monkeypox is that monkeypox causes lymph nodes to swell (lymphadenopathy) while smallpox does not. The incubation period (time from infection to symptoms) for monkeypox is usually 7−14 days but can range from 5−21 days.
The illness begins with:
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Backache
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Chills
  • Exhaustion
Within 1 to 3 days (sometimes longer) after the appearance of fever, the patient develops a rash, often beginning on the face then spreading to other parts of the body.
Lesions progress through the following stages before falling off:
  • Macules
  • Papules
  • Vesicles
  • Pustules
  • Scabs
The illness typically lasts for 2−4 weeks. In Africa, monkeypox has been shown to cause death in as many as 1 in 10 persons who contract the disease.
How can it be prevented?
Your healthcare provider will report your monkeypox illness to the public health department. Do the following until your healthcare provider says that you can no longer spread monkeypox to others:
  • Do not go to work, school, or other public areas until your healthcare provider says it is okay. You may still be able to give monkeypox to others even after you feel better.
  • Tell healthcare providers that you may have monkeypox before they come in direct contact with you. They need to take steps to protect themselves and their staff from the virus.
  • Wash your hands often, especially before you eat, and after you touch anything or use the bathroom.
  • Avoid being around others whenever possible. Limit your movement inside your house. Limit visitors. Wear a mask when other people are in the room with you. Have your visitors wear masks. Cover your mouth and nose when you sneeze or cough. Wear clothing that covers your rash when you must be around other people. This may include long sleeves and long pants.
  • Your family members, visitors, and coworkers should pay special attention to how they feel. They should watch for fever or signs of sickness for 3 weeks after visiting you. Anyone who develops a fever or rash should call his healthcare provider right away.

How can it be treated?
According to WHO, There are no specific treatments or vaccines available for monkeypox infection, but outbreaks can be controlled. Vaccination against smallpox has been proven to be 85% effective in preventing monkeypox in the past but the vaccine is no longer available to the general public after it was discontinued following global smallpox eradication. Nevertheless, prior smallpox vaccination will likely result in a milder disease course.

CDC recommends;
Cidofovir, an antiviral agent, is suggested for people with life-threatening symptoms.

Resources/Further reading;
WHO

ADVERTISEMENT

Monkeypox

Medical Author:
Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
Medical Editor:
Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
Medically Reviewed on 2/8/2016
1/11

Monkeypox facts

  • Monkeypox is a viral disease that produces pox lesions on the skin and is closely related to smallpox but is not nearly as deadly as smallpox was.
  • The history of monkeypox is new (1958), and the first human cases were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s.
  • Monkeypox virus causes monkeypox. The majority of cases are transmitted from animals (rodents) to humans by direct contact. Person-to-person transfer, probably by droplets, can occur infrequently.
  • Risk factors for monkeypox include close association with African animals (usually rodents) that have the disease or caring for a patient who has monkeypox.
  • During the first few days, symptoms are nonspecific and include fevernausea, and malaise. After about four to seven days, lesions (pustules, papules) develop on the face and trunk that ulcerate, crust over, and begin to clear up after about 14-21 days, and lymph nodes enlarge. There may be some scarring.
  • The diagnosis of monkeypox is often made presumptively in Africa by the patient’s history and the exam that shows the pox lesions, however, a definitive diagnosis is made by PCR, ELISA, or Western blotting tests that are usually done by the CDC or some state labs. Definitive diagnosis is important to rule out other possible infectious agents like smallpox.
  • Treatment may consist of immediate vaccination with smallpox vaccine because monkeypox is so closely related to smallpox. Treatment with an antiviral drug or human immune globulin has been done.
  • In general, the prognosis for monkeypox is good to excellent as most patients recover. The prognosis may decrease in immunocompromised patients, and patients with other problems such as malnutrition or lung disease may have a poorer prognosis.
  • Monkeypox is preventable as long as people avoid direct contact with infected animals and people. Vaccination against smallpox seems to afford about an 85% chance of avoiding the infection. There is no commercially available vaccine specifically for monkeypox.
  • Research is ongoing to study antivirals, genetics, and rapid tests for monkeypox.

What is monkeypox?

    Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease that was first detected in monkeys in Africa in 1958 and resembles smallpox in terms of the skin lesions (pox) seen in humans as part of the physical findings and also because the cause is a virus that is closely related to the smallpox (variola) virus. Monkeypox, smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses all belong to the same family of viruses, the Poxviridae. Monkeypox belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. The disease is different from smallpox. Monkeypox may be transferred from animals to people (or person to person) and has far less mortality (death rate) than smallpox had. Monkeypox virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. Smallpox did not infect any endemic animal population. The press and bloggers have occasionally tried to link monkeypox to other diseases such as mad cow diseaseEbolaleprosyyellow fever, and other viral and immunological diseases, but there is no scientific evidence for this.
    2/11

    What is the history of monkeypox?

    Monkeypox has a relatively recent history. It was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, although a “vesicular disease in monkeys” was described in the1860s. The disease, and eventually the causative virus, was named monkeypox because the lesions (pox) seen in monkeys developed like other known pox-forming diseases (pustules that eventually break open, ulcerate, crust over, and some pox form scars in the skin). Later studies showed the “monkeypox” virus was actually sustained endemically in African rodents. It was not until 1970 in Africa (Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo), when a 9-year-old boy (who developed smallpox-like lesions) was the first person to eventually be diagnosed with monkeypox. This situation initially caused concern that smallpox may also have an animal reservoir or endemic population that would make eradication of smallpox impossible. Fortunately, this was not the case because monkeypox was found to be a different species of pox virus, and smallpox was eradicated from the human population by vaccinations in 1979 (currently, only a few research labs have access to smallpox viruses). Monkeypox is now the major Orthopoxvirus that infects humans and fortunately, not frequently. However, vigilance is warranted as there have been several outbreaks of monkeypox since the 1970s. Although most have occurred in Africa (mainly western and central Africa), there was an outbreak in the U.S. in 2003. This apparently happened when an animal distributor either housed or transported monkeypox-infected African rodents (Gambian rats) with prairie dogsthat were later purchased as pets, became “sick,” and transmitted the disease to their owners.
    3/11

    What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?

    Monkeypox is caused by an Orthopoxvirus named monkeypox. The viruses are oval brick-shaped viruses that have a lipoprotein layer with tubules or filaments that cover the viral DNA. There are many members of this viral genus, including such species as variola (smallpox), cowpox, buffalopox, camelpox, rabbitpox, and others. Most species infect a particular animal species but occasionally may infect other mammals.
    Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy

    Figure 1: Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy; SOURCE: CDC/Cynthia S. Goldsmith, Inger K. Damon, and Sherif R. Zaki

    Transmission of monkeypox is usually by direct contact with infected animals or possibly by eating poorly cooked meat from an infected rodent or monkey. Cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the infected animals are a likely source of transmission to humans, especially when the human skin is broken due to bites, scratches, or other trauma — are a likely source for virus infection. Person-to-person transfer, probably by infected respiratory droplets, is possible but is not often documented. One study suggested that only about 8%-15% of infections were transmitted person to person among close family members.
    4/11

    What are risk factors for monkeypox?

    Monkeypox is a relatively uncommon disease. Risk factors include animal bites and scratches from infected animals (mainly African rodents or monkeys) or from other rodents (like prairie dogs) that have had contact with African animals infected with the virus. People should avoid eating any meat from such animals is advised. Recent studies have shown that several species of mammals can be infected with monkeypox, even though the species had never been associated with the virus in their normal environment. Person-to-person transfer, although infrequent, can be reduced or prevented by avoiding direct physical contact with the patient and having the patient’s caregivers wear gloves and face masks.
    5/11

    What are monkeypox symptoms and signs?

      The first symptoms that occur are nonspecific — fever, sweating, malaise, and some patients may develop a coughnausea, and shortness of breath. About two to four days after fever develops, a rash with papules and pustules develops most often on the face and chest, but other body areas may eventually be affected, including mucus membranes inside the nose and mouth. These skin and mucus membrane pox lesions can ulcerate, crust over, and then begin to heal in about 14-21 days. In addition, lymph nodes usually swell during this time. Some pox lesions may become necrotic and destroy sebaceous glands, leaving a depression or pox scar that, with monkeypox, may gradually become less pronounced over a few years. The toxemia that was seen with smallpox is not seen with monkeypox.
      Picture of the pustules/papules of characteristic monkeypox rash

      Figure 2: Picture of the pustules/papules of characteristic monkeypox rash; SOURCE: World Health Organization (WHO)/Brian W.J. Mahy, BSc, MA, PhD, ScD, DSc

      6/11

      How is monkeypox diagnosed?

      The history (especially association with rodents or other animals) and physical exam (present of pox lesions) is presumptive evidence for a diagnosis of monkeypox. Caution is advised. Infectious-disease consultants and CDC personnel should be notified because this infection may represent two additional problems. First, in the U.S. or other countries, it may likely indicate an outbreak of monkeypox, and informed health authorities may help to identify the source of the infection and prevent its spread. The second problem is unlikely but far more serious; the early symptoms may represent a biological warfare or terrorist attack with smallpox that is mistakenly identified as monkeypox. Consequently, definitive diagnosis of this viral disease, outside of Africa, and especially in developed countries where monkeypox is not endemic, is urged. Most laboratories do not have the reagents to do this testing, so state labs or the CDC will need to process the samples to establish a definitive diagnosis. These tests are based on detecting antigenic structures (usually from skin or pox samples or occasionally serum) specific to either monkeypox virus or immunoglobulin that reacts with the virus. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), ELISA techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), or Western blotting tests (immunoblotting) are the main tests used.
      7/11

      What is the treatment for monkeypox?

        The CDC recommends the following:
        • A smallpox vaccination should be administered within two weeks of exposure to monkeypox.
        • Cidofovir (Vistide), an antiviral drug, is suggested for patients with severe, life-threatening symptoms.
        • Vaccinia immune globulin may be used, but efficacy of use has not been documented.

        ADVERTISEMENT

        Monkeypox

        Medical Author:
        Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
        Medical Editor:
        Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
        Medically Reviewed on 2/8/2016
        1/11

        Monkeypox facts

        • Monkeypox is a viral disease that produces pox lesions on the skin and is closely related to smallpox but is not nearly as deadly as smallpox was.
        • The history of monkeypox is new (1958), and the first human cases were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s.
        • Monkeypox virus causes monkeypox. The majority of cases are transmitted from animals (rodents) to humans by direct contact. Person-to-person transfer, probably by droplets, can occur infrequently.
        • Risk factors for monkeypox include close association with African animals (usually rodents) that have the disease or caring for a patient who has monkeypox.
        • During the first few days, symptoms are nonspecific and include fevernausea, and malaise. After about four to seven days, lesions (pustules, papules) develop on the face and trunk that ulcerate, crust over, and begin to clear up after about 14-21 days, and lymph nodes enlarge. There may be some scarring.
        • The diagnosis of monkeypox is often made presumptively in Africa by the patient’s history and the exam that shows the pox lesions, however, a definitive diagnosis is made by PCR, ELISA, or Western blotting tests that are usually done by the CDC or some state labs. Definitive diagnosis is important to rule out other possible infectious agents like smallpox.
        • Treatment may consist of immediate vaccination with smallpox vaccine because monkeypox is so closely related to smallpox. Treatment with an antiviral drug or human immune globulin has been done.
        • In general, the prognosis for monkeypox is good to excellent as most patients recover. The prognosis may decrease in immunocompromised patients, and patients with other problems such as malnutrition or lung disease may have a poorer prognosis.
        • Monkeypox is preventable as long as people avoid direct contact with infected animals and people. Vaccination against smallpox seems to afford about an 85% chance of avoiding the infection. There is no commercially available vaccine specifically for monkeypox.
        • Research is ongoing to study antivirals, genetics, and rapid tests for monkeypox.

        What is monkeypox?

          Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease that was first detected in monkeys in Africa in 1958 and resembles smallpox in terms of the skin lesions (pox) seen in humans as part of the physical findings and also because the cause is a virus that is closely related to the smallpox (variola) virus. Monkeypox, smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses all belong to the same family of viruses, the Poxviridae. Monkeypox belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. The disease is different from smallpox. Monkeypox may be transferred from animals to people (or person to person) and has far less mortality (death rate) than smallpox had. Monkeypox virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. Smallpox did not infect any endemic animal population. The press and bloggers have occasionally tried to link monkeypox to other diseases such as mad cow diseaseEbolaleprosyyellow fever, and other viral and immunological diseases, but there is no scientific evidence for this.
          2/11

          What is the history of monkeypox?

          Monkeypox has a relatively recent history. It was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, although a “vesicular disease in monkeys” was described in the1860s. The disease, and eventually the causative virus, was named monkeypox because the lesions (pox) seen in monkeys developed like other known pox-forming diseases (pustules that eventually break open, ulcerate, crust over, and some pox form scars in the skin). Later studies showed the “monkeypox” virus was actually sustained endemically in African rodents. It was not until 1970 in Africa (Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo), when a 9-year-old boy (who developed smallpox-like lesions) was the first person to eventually be diagnosed with monkeypox. This situation initially caused concern that smallpox may also have an animal reservoir or endemic population that would make eradication of smallpox impossible. Fortunately, this was not the case because monkeypox was found to be a different species of pox virus, and smallpox was eradicated from the human population by vaccinations in 1979 (currently, only a few research labs have access to smallpox viruses). Monkeypox is now the major Orthopoxvirus that infects humans and fortunately, not frequently. However, vigilance is warranted as there have been several outbreaks of monkeypox since the 1970s. Although most have occurred in Africa (mainly western and central Africa), there was an outbreak in the U.S. in 2003. This apparently happened when an animal distributor either housed or transported monkeypox-infected African rodents (Gambian rats) with prairie dogsthat were later purchased as pets, became “sick,” and transmitted the disease to their owners.
          3/11

          What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?

          Monkeypox is caused by an Orthopoxvirus named monkeypox. The viruses are oval brick-shaped viruses that have a lipoprotein layer with tubules or filaments that cover the viral DNA. There are many members of this viral genus, including such species as variola (smallpox), cowpox, buffalopox, camelpox, rabbitpox, and others. Most species infect a particular animal species but occasionally may infect other mammals.
          Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy

          Figure 1: Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy; SOURCE: CDC/Cynthia S. Goldsmith, Inger K. Damon, and Sherif R. Zaki

          Transmission of monkeypox is usually by direct contact with infected animals or possibly by eating poorly cooked meat from an infected rodent or monkey. Cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the infected animals are a likely source of transmission to humans, especially when the human skin is broken due to bites, scratches, or other trauma — are a likely source for virus infection. Person-to-person transfer, probably by infected respiratory droplets, is possible but is not often documented. One study suggested that only about 8%-15% of infections were transmitted person to person among close family members.
          4/11

          What are risk factors for monkeypox?

          Monkeypox is a relatively uncommon disease. Risk factors include animal bites and scratches from infected animals (mainly African rodents or monkeys) or from other rodents (like prairie dogs) that have had contact with African animals infected with the virus. People should avoid eating any meat from such animals is advised. Recent studies have shown that several species of mammals can be infected with monkeypox, even though the species had never been associated with the virus in their normal environment. Person-to-person transfer, although infrequent, can be reduced or prevented by avoiding direct physical contact with the patient and having the patient’s caregivers wear gloves and face masks.
          5/11

          What are monkeypox symptoms and signs?

            The first symptoms that occur are nonspecific — fever, sweating, malaise, and some patients may develop a coughnausea, and shortness of breath. About two to four days after fever develops, a rash with papules and pustules develops most often on the face and chest, but other body areas may eventually be affected, including mucus membranes inside the nose and mouth. These skin and mucus membrane pox lesions can ulcerate, crust over, and then begin to heal in about 14-21 days. In addition, lymph nodes usually swell during this time. Some pox lesions may become necrotic and destroy sebaceous glands, leaving a depression or pox scar that, with monkeypox, may gradually become less pronounced over a few years. The toxemia that was seen with smallpox is not seen with monkeypox.
            Picture of the pustules/papules of characteristic monkeypox rash

            Figure 2: Picture of the pustules/papules of characteristic monkeypox rash; SOURCE: World Health Organization (WHO)/Brian W.J. Mahy, BSc, MA, PhD, ScD, DSc

            6/11

            How is monkeypox diagnosed?

            The history (especially association with rodents or other animals) and physical exam (present of pox lesions) is presumptive evidence for a diagnosis of monkeypox. Caution is advised. Infectious-disease consultants and CDC personnel should be notified because this infection may represent two additional problems. First, in the U.S. or other countries, it may likely indicate an outbreak of monkeypox, and informed health authorities may help to identify the source of the infection and prevent its spread. The second problem is unlikely but far more serious; the early symptoms may represent a biological warfare or terrorist attack with smallpox that is mistakenly identified as monkeypox. Consequently, definitive diagnosis of this viral disease, outside of Africa, and especially in developed countries where monkeypox is not endemic, is urged. Most laboratories do not have the reagents to do this testing, so state labs or the CDC will need to process the samples to establish a definitive diagnosis. These tests are based on detecting antigenic structures (usually from skin or pox samples or occasionally serum) specific to either monkeypox virus or immunoglobulin that reacts with the virus. PCR (polymerase chain reaction), ELISA techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), or Western blotting tests (immunoblotting) are the main tests used.
            7/11

            What is the treatment for monkeypox?

              The CDC recommends the following:
              • A smallpox vaccination should be administered within two weeks of exposure to monkeypox.
              • Cidofovir (Vistide), an antiviral drug, is suggested for patients with severe, life-threatening symptoms.
              • Vaccinia immune globulin may be used, but efficacy of use has not been documented.

              ADVERTISEMENT

              Monkeypox

              Medical Author:
              Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
              Medical Editor:
              Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
              Medically Reviewed on 2/8/2016
              1/11

              Monkeypox facts

              • Monkeypox is a viral disease that produces pox lesions on the skin and is closely related to smallpox but is not nearly as deadly as smallpox was.
              • The history of monkeypox is new (1958), and the first human cases were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s.
              • Monkeypox virus causes monkeypox. The majority of cases are transmitted from animals (rodents) to humans by direct contact. Person-to-person transfer, probably by droplets, can occur infrequently.
              • Risk factors for monkeypox include close association with African animals (usually rodents) that have the disease or caring for a patient who has monkeypox.
              • During the first few days, symptoms are nonspecific and include fevernausea, and malaise. After about four to seven days, lesions (pustules, papules) develop on the face and trunk that ulcerate, crust over, and begin to clear up after about 14-21 days, and lymph nodes enlarge. There may be some scarring.
              • The diagnosis of monkeypox is often made presumptively in Africa by the patient’s history and the exam that shows the pox lesions, however, a definitive diagnosis is made by PCR, ELISA, or Western blotting tests that are usually done by the CDC or some state labs. Definitive diagnosis is important to rule out other possible infectious agents like smallpox.
              • Treatment may consist of immediate vaccination with smallpox vaccine because monkeypox is so closely related to smallpox. Treatment with an antiviral drug or human immune globulin has been done.
              • In general, the prognosis for monkeypox is good to excellent as most patients recover. The prognosis may decrease in immunocompromised patients, and patients with other problems such as malnutrition or lung disease may have a poorer prognosis.
              • Monkeypox is preventable as long as people avoid direct contact with infected animals and people. Vaccination against smallpox seems to afford about an 85% chance of avoiding the infection. There is no commercially available vaccine specifically for monkeypox.
              • Research is ongoing to study antivirals, genetics, and rapid tests for monkeypox.

              What is monkeypox?

                Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease that was first detected in monkeys in Africa in 1958 and resembles smallpox in terms of the skin lesions (pox) seen in humans as part of the physical findings and also because the cause is a virus that is closely related to the smallpox (variola) virus. Monkeypox, smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses all belong to the same family of viruses, the Poxviridae. Monkeypox belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. The disease is different from smallpox. Monkeypox may be transferred from animals to people (or person to person) and has far less mortality (death rate) than smallpox had. Monkeypox virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. Smallpox did not infect any endemic animal population. The press and bloggers have occasionally tried to link monkeypox to other diseases such as mad cow diseaseEbolaleprosyyellow fever, and other viral and immunological diseases, but there is no scientific evidence for this.
                2/11

                What is the history of monkeypox?

                Monkeypox has a relatively recent history. It was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, although a “vesicular disease in monkeys” was described in the1860s. The disease, and eventually the causative virus, was named monkeypox because the lesions (pox) seen in monkeys developed like other known pox-forming diseases (pustules that eventually break open, ulcerate, crust over, and some pox form scars in the skin). Later studies showed the “monkeypox” virus was actually sustained endemically in African rodents. It was not until 1970 in Africa (Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo), when a 9-year-old boy (who developed smallpox-like lesions) was the first person to eventually be diagnosed with monkeypox. This situation initially caused concern that smallpox may also have an animal reservoir or endemic population that would make eradication of smallpox impossible. Fortunately, this was not the case because monkeypox was found to be a different species of pox virus, and smallpox was eradicated from the human population by vaccinations in 1979 (currently, only a few research labs have access to smallpox viruses). Monkeypox is now the major Orthopoxvirus that infects humans and fortunately, not frequently. However, vigilance is warranted as there have been several outbreaks of monkeypox since the 1970s. Although most have occurred in Africa (mainly western and central Africa), there was an outbreak in the U.S. in 2003. This apparently happened when an animal distributor either housed or transported monkeypox-infected African rodents (Gambian rats) with prairie dogsthat were later purchased as pets, became “sick,” and transmitted the disease to their owners.
                3/11

                What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?

                Monkeypox is caused by an Orthopoxvirus named monkeypox. The viruses are oval brick-shaped viruses that have a lipoprotein layer with tubules or filaments that cover the viral DNA. There are many members of this viral genus, including such species as variola (smallpox), cowpox, buffalopox, camelpox, rabbitpox, and others. Most species infect a particular animal species but occasionally may infect other mammals.
                Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy

                Figure 1: Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy; SOURCE: CDC/Cynthia S. Goldsmith, Inger K. Damon, and Sherif R. Zaki

                Transmission of monkeypox is usually by direct contact with infected animals or possibly by eating poorly cooked meat from an infected rodent or monkey. Cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the infected animals are a likely source of transmission to humans, especially when the human skin is broken due to bites, scratches, or other trauma — are a likely source for virus infection. Person-to-person transfer, probably by infected respiratory droplets, is possible but is not often documented. One study suggested that only about 8%-15% of infections were transmitted person to person among close family members.
                4/11

                What are risk factors for monkeypox?

                Monkeypox is a relatively uncommon disease. Risk factors include animal bites and scratches from infected animals (mainly African rodents or monkeys) or from other rodents (like prairie dogs) that have had contact with African animals infected with the virus. People should avoid eating any meat from such animals is advised. Recent studies have shown that several species of mammals can be infected with monkeypox, even though the species had never been associated with the virus in their normal environment. Person-to-person transfer, although infrequent, can be reduced or prevented by avoiding direct physical contact with the patient and having the patient’s caregivers wear gloves and face masks.

                ADVERTISEMENT

                Monkeypox

                Medical Author:
                Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
                Medical Editor:
                Mary D. Nettleman, MD, MS, MACP
                Medically Reviewed on 2/8/2016
                1/11

                Monkeypox facts

                • Monkeypox is a viral disease that produces pox lesions on the skin and is closely related to smallpox but is not nearly as deadly as smallpox was.
                • The history of monkeypox is new (1958), and the first human cases were diagnosed and differentiated from smallpox in the early 1970s.
                • Monkeypox virus causes monkeypox. The majority of cases are transmitted from animals (rodents) to humans by direct contact. Person-to-person transfer, probably by droplets, can occur infrequently.
                • Risk factors for monkeypox include close association with African animals (usually rodents) that have the disease or caring for a patient who has monkeypox.
                • During the first few days, symptoms are nonspecific and include fevernausea, and malaise. After about four to seven days, lesions (pustules, papules) develop on the face and trunk that ulcerate, crust over, and begin to clear up after about 14-21 days, and lymph nodes enlarge. There may be some scarring.
                • The diagnosis of monkeypox is often made presumptively in Africa by the patient’s history and the exam that shows the pox lesions, however, a definitive diagnosis is made by PCR, ELISA, or Western blotting tests that are usually done by the CDC or some state labs. Definitive diagnosis is important to rule out other possible infectious agents like smallpox.
                • Treatment may consist of immediate vaccination with smallpox vaccine because monkeypox is so closely related to smallpox. Treatment with an antiviral drug or human immune globulin has been done.
                • In general, the prognosis for monkeypox is good to excellent as most patients recover. The prognosis may decrease in immunocompromised patients, and patients with other problems such as malnutrition or lung disease may have a poorer prognosis.
                • Monkeypox is preventable as long as people avoid direct contact with infected animals and people. Vaccination against smallpox seems to afford about an 85% chance of avoiding the infection. There is no commercially available vaccine specifically for monkeypox.
                • Research is ongoing to study antivirals, genetics, and rapid tests for monkeypox.

                What is monkeypox?

                  Monkeypox is a relatively rare disease that was first detected in monkeys in Africa in 1958 and resembles smallpox in terms of the skin lesions (pox) seen in humans as part of the physical findings and also because the cause is a virus that is closely related to the smallpox (variola) virus. Monkeypox, smallpox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses all belong to the same family of viruses, the Poxviridae. Monkeypox belongs to same genus (Orthopoxvirus) as smallpox. The disease is different from smallpox. Monkeypox may be transferred from animals to people (or person to person) and has far less mortality (death rate) than smallpox had. Monkeypox virus is endemic in rodent populations in Africa. Smallpox did not infect any endemic animal population. The press and bloggers have occasionally tried to link monkeypox to other diseases such as mad cow diseaseEbolaleprosyyellow fever, and other viral and immunological diseases, but there is no scientific evidence for this.
                  2/11

                  What is the history of monkeypox?

                  Monkeypox has a relatively recent history. It was first discovered in monkeys in 1958, although a “vesicular disease in monkeys” was described in the1860s. The disease, and eventually the causative virus, was named monkeypox because the lesions (pox) seen in monkeys developed like other known pox-forming diseases (pustules that eventually break open, ulcerate, crust over, and some pox form scars in the skin). Later studies showed the “monkeypox” virus was actually sustained endemically in African rodents. It was not until 1970 in Africa (Zaire, now the Democratic Republic of Congo), when a 9-year-old boy (who developed smallpox-like lesions) was the first person to eventually be diagnosed with monkeypox. This situation initially caused concern that smallpox may also have an animal reservoir or endemic population that would make eradication of smallpox impossible. Fortunately, this was not the case because monkeypox was found to be a different species of pox virus, and smallpox was eradicated from the human population by vaccinations in 1979 (currently, only a few research labs have access to smallpox viruses). Monkeypox is now the major Orthopoxvirus that infects humans and fortunately, not frequently. However, vigilance is warranted as there have been several outbreaks of monkeypox since the 1970s. Although most have occurred in Africa (mainly western and central Africa), there was an outbreak in the U.S. in 2003. This apparently happened when an animal distributor either housed or transported monkeypox-infected African rodents (Gambian rats) with prairie dogsthat were later purchased as pets, became “sick,” and transmitted the disease to their owners.
                  3/11

                  What causes monkeypox? How is monkeypox transmitted?

                  Monkeypox is caused by an Orthopoxvirus named monkeypox. The viruses are oval brick-shaped viruses that have a lipoprotein layer with tubules or filaments that cover the viral DNA. There are many members of this viral genus, including such species as variola (smallpox), cowpox, buffalopox, camelpox, rabbitpox, and others. Most species infect a particular animal species but occasionally may infect other mammals.
                  Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy

                  Figure 1: Monkeypox virus, brick-shaped negative stained virus grown in tissue cultures, visualized by electron microscopy; SOURCE: CDC/Cynthia S. Goldsmith, Inger K. Damon, and Sherif R. Zaki

                  Transmission of monkeypox is usually by direct contact with infected animals or possibly by eating poorly cooked meat from an infected rodent or monkey. Cutaneous or mucosal lesions on the infected animals are a likely source of transmission to humans, especially when the human skin is broken due to bites, scratches, or other trauma — are a likely source for virus infection. Person-to-person transfer, probably by infected respiratory droplets, is possible but is not often documented. One study suggested that only about 8%-15% of infections were transmitted person to person among close family members.
                  4/11

                  What are risk factors for monkeypox?

                  Monkeypox is a relatively uncommon disease. Risk factors include animal bites and scratches from infected animals (mainly African rodents or monkeys) or from other rodents (like prairie dogs) that have had contact with African animals infected with the virus. People should avoid eating any meat from such animals is advised. Recent studies have shown that several species of mammals can be infected with monkeypox, even though the species had never been associated with the virus in their normal environment. Person-to-person transfer, although infrequent, can be reduced or prevented by avoiding direct physical contact with the patient and having the patient’s caregivers wear gloves and face masks.

                  MUST READ:  What Is Autosuggestion All About?
                  Updated: October 5, 2017 — 6:30 pm

                  MEDICAL DISCLAIMER!

                  You should not rely on this information as a substitute for, nor does it replace, professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professional.

                  Visit our Disclaimer page to learn more.

                  The Author

                  SIRPHREN

                  Sunday Dapo OBEMBE is professionally a Nurse and passionately a Blogger. Knowledge of health is wealth.

                  DROP YOUR COMMENTS!

                  HELATH ZONE © 2018 Powered By MULTILOADED EMPIRE
                  %d bloggers like this: