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Diabetes mellitus: What is it?

Diabetic mellitus is a metabolic disorder or disorder of blood glucose control characterized by imbalance in

× Insulin production
× Insulin need
× and visibility of body to use available Insulin

This imbalance can result into total lack of insulin in sense that :

❗ release of insulin from the pancreas is impaired ..
❗ poor insulin receptor action.
❗Production of ineffective insulin or insulin not sufficient or become destroy before effective .

With lack of insulin, glucose won’t be able to move from blood cell into the receptor site ( muscle or fat cells) this will lead to a condition call hyperglycemia ( increase blood glucose).

Since glucose doesn’t move to the muscle due to lack of insulin, the muscle too will be hungry and it started feeding on the fat, which is dangerous to the body, causing Ketoacidosis ( A serious medical condition in which keton is in the body)

Diabetes mellitus classified into two Major types

√ Type 1
√ Type 2

 

TYPE 1
🗡 Known as Insulin dependant diabetes mellitus
🗡is characterize by total lack of insulin due to the destruction of the pancreatic beta cell where insulin is being produce.
🗡 Diagnosis is usually in Childhood
🗡 Treated with insulin injections.

 

TYPE 2
🗡 Known as non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
🗡 Characterise by Impaired release of insulin, defective insulin receptors, and destruction of insulin before it can become effective.
🗡 Usually manifest in adult older than 40, although it’s being diagnosed in increasing younger patients.
🗡 It can be controlled by : Diet, Exercise and oral hypoglycemia agent.
🗡 they may or may not required insulin injections like type 1 patients.

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The common symptoms of Diabetes
It include the 3 P’s

How will you know you have DM?

✔ Polyuria (excessive urination)
✔Polydipsia ( Excessive thirsty)
✔Polyphagia ( excessive Hunger)

Others imclude
” fatigue
*muscle weakness
*muscle wasting (losing weight, becoming lean)
*Vision changes
* Numbness and tumbling in hands and feet
*Dry skin
* Poor wound healing

 

Complication

If DM is left untreated, it may result into any of the following;

Acute Complications
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
❗Hypoglycemia ( Low blood Glucose)

Long term complication

+ Kidney disease
+ Eye disease
+ Heart disease
+ Nerve Disease

 

Causes of Diabetes Mellitus
✔ Infections especially Viral
✔Liver disease
✔Pancreatic disease

 

Diagnostic investigation

❗FBS (Fasting Blood Sugar)
❗RBS (Random Blood Sugar)
❗Urinalysis (Testing of urine)
❗RFT

 

Prevention and Management

+ Nutrition modifications
+ Medication

+ Exercise

+ Lifestyle changes

+ General Health check up

MEDICAL DISCLAIMER!

You should not rely on this information as a substitute for, nor does it replace, professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you have any concerns or questions about your health, you should always consult with a physician or other healthcare professional.

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The Author

Hephzibah

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