What Is Danger triangle of the face?
It is the area in the face where infection can spread, [as a result of popping acne/pimples] to the cavernous sinus which can eventually lead to cavernous sinus thrombosis. Which directly spreads infection to the brain.
Where is it located?
It is the part of the face in triangle shape from the corners of the mouth up to the bridge of the nose i.e covering the lower part of nose and the upper lip., including the nose and the maxilla.
Why is it dangerous?
The presence of loose areolar tissue containing the emissary veins allows the spread of infection through the emissary veins into the cavernous sinus which further leads to cavernous sinus thrombosis. Due to special nature of blood supply to the nose and surrounding area, it is possible, although unlikely, for retrograde infections from the nasal area spread to the brain, causing cavernous sinus thrombosis, meningitis or brain abscess.
How is the infection spread?
Near the medial angle of the eye the supra orbital vein, which is the facial vein communicates with the superior ophthalmic vein present in the orbit. It is the superior ophthalmic vein that drains into the cavernous sinus. It is only severe facial infection (e.g nasal abscess) that can lead to a deeper central nervous system infectious complication.
According to wikipedia, it was discovered that venous valves are present in the ophthalmic and facial veins. Thus, it is not the absence of venous valves but rather the existence of communication between the facial vein and the cavernous sinus and the direction of blood flow that is important in the spread of infection from the face.
Popping acne or pimple on the nose put an individual at risk of infection.
Sample of nerves affected
CN III (Oculomotor nerve)
CN IV (trochlear nerve)
CN V (trigeminal nerve)
CN VI (abducens nerve)
V1 (ophthalmic nerve)
V2 (maxillary nerve)
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